Wild spring greens (yecai) , often considered weeds, are traditionally popular in China as a springtime tonic and have numerous uses in traditional Chinese medicine. They are mostly “cold” — yin — energy foods and are usually cooked, though some are eaten raw.
They include purslane (马齿苋machixian) or pigweed, dandelion (蒲公英pugongying), shepherd’s purse (荠菜jicai), field sow’s thistle (蓟草jicao), ferns (蕨类juelei), daisy leaves and stems (菊花菜juhuacai). Many are so common that they grow along roadsides, ignored by most people.
These greens are increasingly popular as health foods that provide protein, vitamins and micronutrients — nutrients required throughout life in small quantities. Some are also said to be naturally insect-repellent and thus need no pesticides in cultivation.
Some are available in Western-style supermarkets — such as dandelion, shepherd’s purse and daisy leaves. Chinese markets sell others.
Include them sparingly in your spring diet along with other fresh greens — they are potent.
TCM classifies these wild greens as “cold” food, good for dispelling pathogenic heat, soothing inflammation and acting as a diuretic. Some can treat high blood pressure since they are diuretics and may contain omega-3 acids, while some are anti-microbial.
Many Chinese people want to eat more wild vegetables because of concerns about pesticides used in most commercial vegetable growing. Many people believe they are naturally uncontaminated because insects are said to avoid them.
Many wild vegetables contain very high amounts of vitamin C, beta-carotene, omega-3 fatty acids, calcium, folate, iron, zinc, copper, phosphorus, magnesium and other nutrients.
More than 6,000 varieties of wild vegetables grow in China and around 100 are common in Chinese cuisine. They are made into cold dishes with dressing, fried, used in vegetable soup and in dumpling stuffing.
But be warned that eating too many wild greens may cause diarrhea in those with a weak digestive system. Many are also high in oxalic acid and eating too much can limit the body’s absorption of calcium.
Shepherd’s purse, or jicai, is rich in protein, high in iron, carotene, microelements and vitamin C. Glutamic acid can help promote appetite. It can also help treat iron-deficiency, chronic urinary tract inflammation and gallstones.
Shepherd’s purse is “cold” in TCM. Thus it helps dispel pathogenic heat, relieves swelling, acts as a diuretic, benefits spleen and protects liver. It is taken by those with high blood pressure and liver inflammation.
It can be used in cold dishes, soups or made into dumpling stuffing. Since it is high in oxalic acid, which prevents calcium absorption, it needs to be cooked. If you have weak digestion, don’t eat too much.
1. Mix pork with salt, soy sauce, sugar and starch.
2. Quickly dip dandelion in boiling water, remove it, let it cool and chop.
3. Fry shredded meat with ginger. Add dandelion at the end.
Function: Helps dispel pathogenic heat, eliminates toxins, nourishes yin and promotes internal fluids. It is recommended to relieve coughing and constipation due to yin deficiency.
Purslane is a common succulent-type flowering ground cover. It’s called machixian or horse tooth vegetable because the leaves are said to resemble a horse’s tooth. It’s known elsewhere as pigweed and little hog weed (used as pig fodder), and verdolaga.
It has a mild, sweet-sour taste and it’s chewy. Egg-shaped leaves are green, stems are green or reddish brown.
Purslane is rich in vitamins, protein, carotene, omega-3 fatty acid, fiber, iron and phosphorus. Rich in noradrenalin, it can be helpful to diabetics; the omega-3 acids protect heart and blood vessels.
As a “cold” food in TCM, it dispels heat, fights heat-related ailments and inflammation, acts as a diuretic, and eliminates toxins. It is prescribed for patients with ulcers, high blood pressure, urinary tract infections and other ailments.
It is usually used in soup, congee and cold dishes.
Since it’s very “cold,” pregnant women should avoid it as it could contribute to a miscarriage. It can cause diarrhea in those with “pathogenic cold” in their digestive systems.
Fried purslane with egg
Ingredients: Purslane (30g), eggs (250g), yellow rice wine (5g), salt and soy sauce.
1. Wash and soak purslane in warm water for 10 minutes. Chop it into small pieces.
2. Beat eggs and mix with purslane. Add yellow rice wine, salt and soy sauce to taste.